Vienna is a unique blend of the historic and the modern with a wealth of architecture and artistic and musical heritage. Many of the world's most important composers, including Beethoven and Mozart, have lived and performed behind Vienna's Baroque faÃ§ades. In addition to this Baroque splendor, there are excellent examples of Art Nouveau architecture .
The heart of Vienna is the Innerestadt where some of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions can be found, along with pedestrianized streets lined with countless shops, cafÃ©s, bars and restaurants. The center point is the Graben (literally 'moat'), which is a wide square lined with shops and pavement cafÃ©s under large umbrellas. Following the demolition of the city walls in 1857, the Ringstrasse was laid out and some of Vienna's most beautiful buildings were built along it, between 1858 and 1865. Among the most important are the Staatsoper (State Opera House), Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museum of Fine Arts), Naturhistorisches Museum (Natural History Museum), Parlament (Parliament), Rathaus (City Hall) and Burgtheater.